تبیین مدل خوشه‌های صادراتی با رویکرد کارآفرینی بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه کار آفرینی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت بازرگانى، واحد تهران مرکز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.29252/bar.2020.10037.2639

چکیده

پژوهش پیش­رو با هدف ارائه مدل خوشه‌‌های صادراتی با رویکرد کارآفرینی بین‌‌المللی با تأکید بر محصول کشمش صورت گرفته است‌‌. روش انجام پژوهش از منظر هدف کاربردی- توسعه‌ای و از لحاظ گردآوری داده‌ها جزو پژوهش‌‌های توصیفی- پیمایشی است‌‌،‌‌ که بر روی نمونه‌ای از 10 نفر خبرگان وزارت صنعت، معدن و تجارت (صمت)‌‌،‌ اتاق‌های بازرگانی‌‌، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی و صادرکنندگان کشمش در شهرهای تهران و قزوین پژوهش انجام گرفت‌‌. با استفاده از نرم‌افزار Atlasti مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت‌‌.‌‌ که در گام اول (کدگذاری باز)‌‌،‌‌ مؤلفه‌ها بـر پایـه داده‌هـای به­دست ‌آمده از مصاحبه‌های عمیق و پردازش و مقوله‌بندی آن‌ها به­دست آمد‌‌،‌‌ این مقولات شامل مؤلفه‌های محصول‌‌،‌‌ بازاریابی و تبلیغات‌‌،‌ کیفیت‌‌،‌ عوامل تولید فناوری‌‌،‌‌ عوامل محیطی‌‌،‌‌ عوامل فرهنگی‌‌،‌‌ قانونی‌‌،‌‌ اجتماعی و غیره است. در گام دوم (کدگذاری محـوری)‌‌،‌‌ بـرای طراحـی و نهادینـه‌سـازی مـدیریت خوشه‌های صادراتی و کارآفرینی بین‌الملل‌‌،‌‌ کدگذاری محوری بر اساس مدل پارادایم انجام گرفت‌‌.
در این پژوهش عواملی مانند فرهنگ‌‌سازی‌‌،‌‌ برنامه استراتژیک جامع و صحیح و همچنین منطبق با نیاز‌‌های شرکت‌‌ها‌‌‌،‌‌ بازاریابی صادرات‌‌،‌‌‌‌ و استفاده از شیوه‌های نوین بازاریابی‌‌، تأمین تجهیزات (ترکیبی از عوامل سخت‌افزاری و نرم‌افزاری)‌‌،‌‌ پیاده‌سازی مدیریت محتوا‌‌،‌ فراهم کردن زیربناها و زیرساخت‌های مناسب‌‌،‌‌ ایجاد و بهره‌مندی از پرتال‌های سازمانی‌‌،‌ پیاده‌سازی شبکه اجتماعی‌‌،‌‌ وبلاگ و ویکی جهت نشر و انتقال دانش در فرآیند صادرات‌‌،‌ بهره‌مندی از آموزش و یادگیری الکترونیکی‌‌،‌‌ عقد تفاهم‌نامه بین‌المللی با کشورهای بازار هدف و ایجاد فرآیندهای خلاقیت‌‌،‌‌ نوآوری و شناسایی نیازهای بازارهای هدف به­منزله عوامل مؤثر و مهم در مدل شناسایی شدند‌‌ و در نهایت برای بسط و گسترش نظریه خوشه‌‌های صادراتی با رویکرد کارآفرینی بین‌‌المللی با تأکید بر محصول کشمش‌‌،‌‌ مدل کلی ارائه گردید که نوآوری این پژوهش به‌حساب می‌آید و نشان می‌دهد خوشه‌بندی‌های صادراتی به‌خصوص با تأکید بر صادرات کشمش می‌تواند به کارآفرینی بین‌المللی منجر شود‌‌.‌‌

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presenting the Model of Exporting Clusters through International Entrepreneurship Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sohrab Rahmani 1
  • Hassan Esmailpour 2
  • Abdollah Naami 3
1 PhD student, Department of Entrepreneurship, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study aimed to present an export clusters model using an international entrepreneurship approach with an emphasis on raisin product‌‌.‌‌ The research method is applied-developmental in terms of objective and descriptive / survey in terms of data collection‌‌.‌‌ It was conducted on a sample of 10 experts from Ministry of Industry and Mining, Chambers of Commerce, Ministry of Agriculture Jihad and Raisin Exporters in Tehran and Qazvin cities‌‌.‌‌ It was conducted using Atlas software‌‌.‌‌ In the first step (open coding), the components were derived from the data of in-depth interviews and their processing and categorizing‌‌.‌‌ These categories included the components of product, marketing and advertising, quality, technology production factors, environmental factors, cultural factors, legal factors, social factors, etc‌‌.‌‌ In the second step (axial coding), the axial coding was performed based on the paradigm model to design and institutionalize the management of international entrepreneurship and expert clusters‌‌.‌‌ In this research, factors such as development of culture, a comprehensive and proper strategic plan, and appropriate with the needs of companies, export marketing, and the use of modern marketing techniques, equipment supply (combination of hardware and software elements), implementation of content management, provision of appropriate infrastructure, creating and utilizing enterprise portals, implementing social network and blogs for knowledge dissemination and transfer in the process of expert, utilizing e-learning, signing international contract with target market countries, and creating processes for creativity, innovation and identification of the needs of the target markets were identified as influential factors in the model‌‌.‌‌ Finally, a general model was presented to extend the theory of export clusters using an international entrepreneurship approach with an emphasis on raisin product‌‌.‌‌ It is considered as the innovation of this research and indicates that export clustering with an emphasis on raisin export can result in international entrepreneurship‌‌.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Exporting clusters
  • international entrepreneurship
  • raisin
  • Exporting dried fruit‌‌
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