ریشه‌یابی پیدایش و موفقیت جهان‌زادها در مراحل اولیه: روش فراترکیب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد، MBA، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، بازاریابی، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران

10.29252/bar.2022.14591.3652

چکیده

از آنجا که جهان‌زادها برای آینده کسب‌وکار اهمیت زیادی دارند و با توجه به اینکه یافته‌های تحقیقات پیشین پراکنده می‌باشد، نیاز به توسعه مدل‌های مفهومی یکپارچه و چارچوب‌های نظری جامع وجود دارد. همچنین، ضرورت بررسی کلی پژوهش درباره جهان‌زادها در کارهای پژوهشی قبلی ذکر شده است. مشکلات مذکور در  پیشینه جهان‌زاد و نیز ضرورت توسعه چارچوب جامع، انگیزه اصلی برای انجام این پژوهش در جهت رفع این مشکلات است. در نتیجه، هدف از این مقاله، یکپارچه‌سازی و تجمیع تمام مطالعات تجربی در جهان در رابطه با ظهور و موفقیت اولیه پیشایندها، عوامل پیش‌برنده و بازدارنده و پیامدهای پدیده بنگاه‌های جهان‌زاد در یک چارچوب جامع است. بدین منظور، این مقاله با استفاده از روش فراترکیب ترکیبی، یافته‌های 85 مطالعه تجربی (فقط مطالعاتی که در مورد موفقیت اولیه جهان‌زادها بودند) را خلاصه و در یک چارچوب مفهومی جامع ترکیب می‌کند. سپس، بر اساس چارچوب توسعه‌یافته، فرصت‌های آتی برای پژوهش و نیز کاربردهای نظری و عملی پیشنهاد می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Driving and preventive factors in the emergence and success of born globals in early stages studied by the meta-synthesis method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hashem Aghazadeh 1
  • Seyed Hossein Khabiri 2
  • Mozhde Khoshnevis 3
1 Associate Professor, Business Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran
2 Master, MBA, Business Management Department, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran
3 PhD student, Marketing, Business Management Department, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Previous studies related to born globals are dispersed, heterogeneous and unsystematic, and the research in this field has not been done in an integrated way. In spite of the dispersion of findings, different researchers have tried to discover mechanisms (antecedents, moderators and consequences) in the area of born global firms. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of born globals, studies have taken into account various issues. Since born globals are important for the future of business and the findings of previous studies are disorganized, there is a need to develop integrated conceptual models and comprehensive theoretical frameworks. The necessity of investigating born globals is mentioned in previous works too. The dearth of research on born globals and the need for developing a comprehensive framework are the main drivers for conducting this review research. As a result, the aim of this article is to collect and integrate all the empirical studies in the world regarding the driving and preventive factors and the consequences of born global firms in a comprehensive framework.
Methodology: Since this study is going to integrate previous research findings and finally provide a framework for the comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon, meta-synthesis is a good method to serve the purpose. However, since all empirical studies (through quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods) should be included in this study, it is necessary to use the mixed meta-synthesis method. A six-step process is considered as a methodological framework of this study. These six steps include formulating the research problem and question, reviewing the literature, evaluating the research studies for identification and inclusion, selecting and doing meta-synthesis techniques for integrating and analyzing the qualitative research findings, presenting a combination of the findings of previous studies, and showing the process. As a result, this article summarizes the findings of 85 empirical studies (only studies related to the early success of born globals) by using the mixed meta-synthesis method and integrates them in a comprehensive conceptual framework.
Results and Discussion: Previous studies have examined the role of global vision as a meditator variable, but there is no research on the moderating role of global vision in different groups of output variables. Distinguishing among the dimensions of experience and the moderating role of experiences is also a research gap. The role of government policies for facilitating the international experiences has not been investigated yet. The role of variables such as managers' global vision or international experience can be studies as a moderator variable. In addition, this study has evaluated the effect of moderators. It has summarized and integrated the empirical results regarding driving and preventive factors and outcomes in the field of born global firms and specifically in the initial stage of their business lifecycle. Based on the developed framework, future opportunities for research and theoretical and practical implications are suggested. According to the adopted theories in the reviewed papers, our first and foremost theoretical suggestion is using the perspective of entrepreneurial financing (and other financial perspectives in the field of born globals) as well as the transformational leadership theory (and other theories in leadership literature). These two theoretical gaps are important in our research because the vital role of management team characteristics in born globals implies the importance of leadership style, and born globals are able to overcome strange costs and resource limitations through selecting the source of financing. This research extends the results of Weerawardena et al. (2007), Gerschewski et al. (2015) and Gerschewski (2011) and adds the results of Knight and Liesch (2016) to this area. Since a large number of research works has been done on the initial stage of formation and success of born globals and this knowledge has been summarized in this study, born global researchers can test this framework in different fields and countries and to create new perspectives and variables for future research. It is useful to reach a general and valid understanding of the advent and the initial success of born globals before going beyond to search the successes and mechanisms of long-term survival.
Conclusion: This paper summarizes and integrates the empirical results regarding the driving and preventive factors and outcomes in the area of born global firms specifically the initial stage of their business lifecycle. However, there are some limitations in this study, including using only two databases and ignoring Google Scholar, EBSCO etc. This questions the comprehensiveness of the research and denotes the likelihood of human error in filtering papers. Hence, there might be some papers in the selected databases or other sources related to the field of this study. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • born global
  • meta-synthesis method
  • international business
Andersson, S. & Berggren, E. (2016). Born global or local? Factors influencing the internationalization of university spin-offs—the case of Halmstad University. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 296–322.
Autio, E., Sapienza, H.J. & Almeida, J.G. (2000). Effects of age at entry, knowledge intensity, and imitability on international growth. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 909-924.
Axinn, C.N. & Matthyssens, P. (2002). Limits of internationalization theories in an unlimited world. International Marketing Review, 19(5), 436–449.
Barroso, J., Leblanc, N.M. & Flores, D. (2017). It’s Not Just the Pills: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of HIV Antiretroviral Adherence Research. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 28(4), 462–478.
Baum, M., Schwens, C. & Kabst, R. (2013). International as opposed to domestic new venturing: The moderating role of perceived barriers to internationalization. International Small Business Journal, 31(5), 536–562.
Bell, J., Crick, D. & Young, S. (2004). Small Firm Internationalization and Business Strategy: An Exploratory Study of ‘Knowledge-Intensive’ and ‘Traditional’ Manufacturing Firms in the UK. International Small Business Journal, 22(1), 23-56.
Borini, F.M., Cahen, F.R. & Oliveira Jr., M.D.M. (2017). The internationalisation of new technology-based firms from emerging markets. International Journal of Technology Management, 74(1/2/3/4), 23.
Casas, R., Kavaliauske, M. & Dambrauskaite, V. (2011). The impact of external business environment factors to internationalization of ‘Born Global’ companies by promoting entrepreneurship. Transformations in Business and Economics, 10(2), 389–400.
Chen, J., Saarenketo, S. & Puumalainen, K. (2018). Home country institutions, social value orientation, and the internationalization of ventures. International Business Review, 27(2), 443–454.
Chetty, S. & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A Strategic Approach to Internationalization: A Traditional Versus a ‘Born-Global’ Approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-81.
Crick, D. (2009). The internationalisation of born global and international new venture SMEs. International Marketing Review, 26(4/5), 453-476.
Delicate, A., Ayers, S. & McMullen, S. (2018). A systematic review and meta-synthesis of the impact of becoming parents on the couple relationship. Midwifery, 61, 88-96.
Deng, Z., Jean, R.-J. “Bryan” & Sinkovics, R.R. (2018). Rapid expansion of international new ventures across institutional distance. Journal of International Business Studies, 49(8), 1010–1032.
Dzikowski, P. (2018). A bibliometric analysis of born global firms. Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, 85, 281–294.
Eaves, Y.D. (2001). A synthesis technique for grounded theory data analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35(5), 654-663.
Efrat, K., Gilboa, S. & Yonatany, M. (2017). When marketing and innovation interact: The case of born-global firms. International Business Review, 26(2), 380-390.
Erwin, E.J., Brotherson, M.J. & Summers, J.A. (2011). Understanding Qualitative Metasynthesis. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(3), 186–200.
Etemad, H., Wright, R.W. & Dana, L.P. (2001). Symbiotic International Business Networks: Collaboration between Small and Large Firms. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(4), 481–499.
Evers, N. (2010). Factors influencing the internationalisation of new ventures in the Irish aquaculture industry: An exploratory study. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 8, 392-416.
Fan, T. & Phan, P. (2007). International new ventures: Revisiting the influences behind the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(7), 1113-1131.
Faroque, A.R. (2015). Strategic orientations and international opportunity recognition and development in emerging country born globals: the moderating role of environmental dynamism. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24(2), 163-186.
Franco, M. & Haase, H. (2016). Internationalisation of born globals: the role of strategic alliances. European Journal of International Management, 10(2), 181-201.
Gabrielsson, M. & Kirpalani, V.H.M. (2012). Overview, background and historical origin of born globals; development of theoretical and empirical research. in Gabrielsson, M. and Kirpalani, V.H.M. (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Born Globals, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA, 3–15.
Gabrielsson, M., Kirpalani, V.H.M., Dimitratos, P., Solberg, C.A. & Zucchella, A. (2008). Born globals: Propositions to help advance the theory”, International Business Review, 17(4), 385-401.
García-Lillo, F., Claver-Cortés, E., Úbeda-García, M. & Marco-Lajara, B. (2017). Exploring the intellectual structure of research on ‘born globals’ and INVs: A literature review using bibliometric methods. Journal of International Entrepreneurship.
Gassmann, O. & Keupp, M.M. (2007). The competitive advantage of early and rapidly internationalising SMEs in the biotechnology industry: A knowledge-based view. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 350-366.
Gerschewski, S. (2011). Born global firms: An integrated analysis of the determinants and measurement of international performance, Victoria University of Wellington.
Gerschewski, S., Rose, E.L. & Lindsay, V.J. (2015). Understanding the drivers of international performance for born global firms: An integrated perspective. Journal of World Business, 50(3), 558–575.
Green, B.N., Johnson, C.D. & Adams, A. (2006). Writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed journals: secrets of the trade. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 5(3), 101-117.
Hewerdine, L. & Welch, C. (2008). Reinterpreting a ‘prime example’ of a born global: Cochlear’s international launch. Progress in International Business Research, 189–206.
Hoon, C. (2013). Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Case Studies: An Approach to Theory Building. Organizational Research Methods, 16(4), 522–556.
Keupp, M.M. & Gassmann, O. (2009). The past and the future of international entrepreneurship: A review and suggestions for developing the field. Journal of Management, 35(3), 600-633.
Knight, G.A. & Cavusgil, S.T. (2004). Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 35, 124-141.
Knight, G.A. & Liesch, P.W. (2016). Internationalization: From incremental to born global. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 93–102.
Kowalik, I., Danik, L., Král, P. & Řezanková, H. (2017). Antecedents of Accelerated Internationalisation of Polish and Czech Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5, 31–49.
Kowalik, I., Danik, L. & Sikora, T. (2017). Entrepreneurial orientation elements in the Polish international new ventures. Baltic Journal of Management, 12(2), 194-213.
Kuivalainen, O., Sundqvist, S. & Servais, P. (2007). Firms’ degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 253-267.
Leblanc, N.M., Flores, D.D. & Barroso, J. (2016). Facilitators and Barriers to HIV Screening. Qualitative Health Research, 26(3), 294–306.
Lee, I.H., Paik, Y. & Uygur, U. (2016). Does Gender Matter in the Export Performance of International New Ventures? Mediation Effects of Firm-specific and Country-specific Advantages. Journal of International Management, 22(4), 365–379.
Li, L., Qian, G. & Qian, Z. (2015). Speed of Internationalization: Mutual Effects of Individual- and Company- Level Antecedents. Global Strategy Journal, 5(4), 303–320.
Lin, S., Mercier-Suissa, C. & Salloum, C. (2016). The Chinese born globals of the Zhejiang Province: A study on the key factors for their rapid internationalization. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 14(1), 75–95.
Madsen, T.K. (2013). Early and rapidly internationalizing ventures: Similarities and differences between classifications based on the original international new venture and born global literatures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11, 65-79.
Madsen, T.K. & Servais, P. (1997). The internationalization of Born Globals: An evolutionary process?. International Business Review, 6(6), 561–583.
Major, C.H. & Savin-Baden, M. (2010). An Introduction to Qualitative Research Synthesis: Managing the Information Explosion in Social Science Research, Routledge.
Manolova, T.S., Manev, I.M. & Gyoshev, B.S. (2010). In good company: The role of personal and inter-firm networks for new-venture internationalization in a transition economy. Journal of World Business, 45(3), 257–265.
Martin, S.L. & Javalgi, R.R.G. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation, marketing capabilities and performance: The Moderating role of Competitive Intensity on Latin American International New Ventures. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 2040–2051.
McAuley, A. (1999). Entrepreneurial Instant Exporters in the Scottish Arts and Crafts Sector. Journal of International Marketing, 7(4), 67-82.
McDougall, P.P., Shane, S. & Oviatt, B.M. (1994). Explaining the formation of international new ventures: The limits of theories from international business research. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(6), 469-487.
McDougall, P.P. & Oviatt, B.M. (2000). International entrepreneurship: the intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 902–906.
Melén, S. & Nordman, E.R. (2009). The internationalisation modes of Born Globals: A longitudinal study. European Management Journal, 27(4), 243-254.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J. & Altman, D.G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 8, 336-341.
Musteen, M., Datta, D.K. & Francis, J. (2014). Early Internationalization by Firms in Transition Economies into Developed Markets: The Role of International Networks. Global Strategy Journal, 4(3), 221–237.
Noblit, G.W. & Hare, R.D.R. (1988). Meta-Ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies, Newbury Park.
OECD. (2005). OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Outlook 2005, OECD Paris, OECD.
Oviatt, B.M. & McDougall, P.P. (1994). Toward a Theory of International New ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1), 45-64.
Øyna, S. & Alon, I. (2018). A Review of Born globals. International Studies of Management and Organization, 48(2), 157-180.
Pluye, P., Gagnon, M.-P., Griffiths, F. & Johnson-Lafleur, J. (2009). A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(4), 529–546.
Qian, G., Li, L. & Qian, Z. (2018). Interactions Among Factors Driving and Inhibiting the Early Internationalization of Small, Young Technology Enterprises. Management International Review, 58(2), 251–280.
Rialp, A., Rialp, J. & Knight, G.A. (2005). The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: What do we know after a decade (1993-2003) of scientific inquiry?. International Business Review, 14(2), 147-166.
Romanello, R. & Chiarvesio, M. (2019). Early internationalizing firms: 2004–2018. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 17(2), 172–219.
Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, J. (2007). Handbook for Synthesizing Qualitative Research, Springer Publishing Company.
Sandelowski, M., Voils, C.I. & Barroso, J. (2006). Defining and Designing Mixed Research Synthesis Studies. Research in Schools, 13(1), 0–29.
Schwens, C., Zapkau, F.B., Bierwerth, M., Isidor, R., Knight, G. & Kabst, R. (2018). International Entrepreneurship: A Meta–Analysis on the Internationalization and Performance Relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 42(5), 734-768.
Sekliuckiene, J. (2017). Factors leading to early internationalization in emerging Central and Eastern European economies. European Business Review, 29(2), 219–242.
Seyedghorban, Z., Matanda, M.J. & LaPlaca, P. (2016). Advancing theory and knowledge in the business-to-business branding literature, Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2664-2677.
Souto, R.Q., Khanassov, V., Hong, Q.N., Bush, P.L., Vedel, I. & Pluye, P. (2015). Systematic mixed studies reviews: Updating results on the reliability and efficiency of the mixed methods appraisal tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 500-501.
Suwanabol, P.A., Kanters, A.E., Reichstein, A.C., Wancata, L.M., Dossett, L.A., Rivet, E.B., Silveira, M.J., Morris, M.A. (2018). Characterizing the Role of U.S. Surgeons in the Provision of Palliative Care: A Systematic Review and Mixed-Methods Meta-Synthesis. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 55(4), 1196-1215.
Terjesen, S., Hessels, J. & Li, D. (2016). Comparative International Entrepreneurship: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Management, 42(1), 299-344.
Tobiano, G., Marshall, A., Bucknall, T. & Chaboyer, W. (2015). Patient participation in nursing care on medical wards: An integrative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(6), 1107–1120.
Trudgen, R. & Freeman, S. (2014). Measuring the Performance of Born-Global Firms Throughout Their Development Process: The Roles of Initial Market Selection and Internationalisation Speed. Management International Review, 54(4), 551–579.
Ullgren, H., Tsitsi, T., Papastavrou, E. & Charalambous, A. (2018). How family caregivers of cancer patients manage symptoms at home: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 85, 68–79.
Walsh, D. & Downe, S. (2004). Meta-synthesis method for qualitative research: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50(2), 204–211.
Weerawardena, J., Mort, G.S., Liesch, P.W. & Knight, G. (2007). Conceptualizing accelerated internationalization in the born global firm: A dynamic capabilities perspective. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 294-306.
Wilhelm, H., Schlömer, M. & Maurer, I. (2015). How dynamic capabilities affect the effectiveness and efficiency of operating routines under high and low levels of environmental dynamism. British Journal of Management, 26(2), 327-345.
Williamson, O. (1973). Markets and Hierarchies: Some Considerations Elementary. The American Economic Review, 63(2), 316–325.
Yang, M. & Gabrielsson, P. (2017). Entrepreneurial marketing of international high-tech business-to-business new ventures: A decision-making process perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 64, 147–160.
Yoon, J. & Kim, D.S. (2016). Empirical relationships among technological characteristics, global orientation, and internationalisation of South Korean new ventures. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(12), 1254.
Zahra, S.A., Ireland, R.D. & Hitt, M.A. (2000). International expansion by new venture firms: international diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 925–950.
Zahra, S.A., Korri, J.S. & Yu, J. (2005). Cognition and international entrepreneurship: implications for research on international opportunity recognition and exploitation. International Business Review, 14(2), 129–146.
Zander, I., McDougall-Covin, P. & L Rose, E. (2015). Born globals and international business: Evolution of a field of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(1), 27-35.
Zhang, M., Gao, Q., Wheeler, J. V. & Kwon, J. (2016). Institutional effect on born global firms in China: the role of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War strategies. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 10(1), 1-19.
Zhang, M., Tansuhaj, P. & McCullough, J. (2009). International entrepreneurial capability: The measurement and a comparison between born global firms and traditional exporters in China. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 7(4), 292–322.
Zhou, L., Barnes, B.R. & Lu, Y. (2010). Entrepreneurial proclivity, capability upgrading and performance advantage of newness among international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(5), 882–905.
Zhou, L., Wu, A. & Barnes, B.R. (2012). The Effects of Early Internationalization on Performance Outcomes in Young International Ventures: The Mediating Role of Marketing Capabilities. Journal of International Marketing, 20(4), 25–45.
Zhou, L., Wu, W.P. & Luo, X. (2007). Internationalization and the performance of born-global SMEs: The mediating role of social networks. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 673-690.
Zimmer, L. (2006). Qualitative meta-synthesis: a question of dialoguing with texts. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(3), 311–318.