تأثیر استراتژی سطح شرکت و استراتژی بازاریابی بر عملکرد بانک‌ها با نقش میانجی محتوای استراتژی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 دانشجوی ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی اهل‌بیت (ع)، تهران

10.22034/jbar.2023.16825.4012

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر، با توجه به موضوع (تأثیر استراتژی سطح شرکت و استراتژی بازاریابی بر عملکرد بانک‌ها با نقش میانجی محتوای استراتژی) و بیان مسئلۀ تحقیق، بررسی تأثیر استراتژی سطح بانک و بازاریابی از طریق محتوای استراتژی (نقش میانجی) بر عملکرد بانک‌های خصوصی در افغانستان می‌باشد. به‌علاوه، این تحقیق از نظر هدف، کاربردی و ازنظر روش، توصیفی - پیمایشی است. ابزار جمع‌آوری داده‌های پژوهش، پرسشنامه است که اغلب 264 پرسشنامه از نمونه آماری برگشت و از طریق معادلات ساختاری و آزمون سوبل تحلیل گردید. بر این اساس، تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها، بر اساس روش­های آماری به کمک نرم‌افزار SPSS23 و LISREL8.80، مورد آزمون و تحلیل قرار گرفت. پایایی تحقیق، توسط آلفای کرونباخ به کمک نرم‌افزار spss و روایی آن بر اساس روایی محتوا و تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل و مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. یافته‌های پژوهش بر اساس آزمون فرضیه­ها، حاکی از تأیید فرضیه‏های پژوهش است. درواقع، استنباط شد که استراتژی سطح بانک و استراتژی بازاریابی بر عملکرد بانک‌ها تأثیر معناداری دارد. از طرفی محتوای استراتژی رابطه بین استراتژی سطح بانک و استراتژی بازاریابی را با عملکرد بانک‌ها تعدیل می‌کند. درنهایت، بین استراتژی سطح بانک و استراتژی بازاریابی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of company level strategy and marketing strategy with the content strategy on the performance of banks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Hamidizadeh 1
  • Ruqia SHuko Hussaini 2
1 Professor, Department of Business Management, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 MBA Graduated, Faculty of Humanities, Ahle Beyt International University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In the present situation, private banks are facing dynamics and challenges such as: insecurity, poor financial instruments, technological and digital problems and so on. However, in order for these banks need a dynamic strategy to interact and cope with these challenges (Plan the right stance and action, bank level strategy and marketing strategy), to ensures the effectiveness of the bank's performance in the long run. Because private banks, without a clear plan, cannot activity compete in new markets and improve their effectiveness and operational capacity. Performance and strategy are two important patterns and capabilities in the growth of activities and presence of companies in competitive markets. The content of the strategy should be designed in such a way that while enumerating the key factors, it predicts the success of private banks; In addition, it leads banks to be more efficient in competing with other banks and ultimately, to develop their business.
Methodology: The purpose of this study, considering the nature and expression of the research problem, is to investigate the effect of company level strategy and marketing strategy through the content strategy (mediator role) on the performance of private banks in Afghanistan. The statistical population of the study includes the managers of seven private banks in Kabul and based on Cochran’s formula, 264 people have been selected as the sample size of the research according to the due to the size of the population. In addition, this research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive - survey in terms of method. The tool for collecting research data, is a questionnaire and the questions of the questionnaire include two parts: general and specialized questions. General questions are related to demographic questions. Specialized questions including 47 questions, based on the Likert scale to examine and measure the indicators of four variables (bank level strategy, marketing strategy, content strategy and bank performance), are also presented in the form of a research questionnaire. Most of the 264 questionnaires were returned from the statistical sample and analyzed through structural equivalence and Sobel test.
Accordingly, data analysis was performed at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics, in the analysis of descriptive statistics section, descriptive statistical methods, tables and graphs were used. In the inferential statistics section, in this research, 5 hypotheses were proposed and tested by examining the research model, based on statistical methods using SPSS23 and LISREL8.80 software. Finally, all hypotheses were confirmed. The reliability of the research was calculated by Cronband´s LISREL8.80 alpha using SPSS software and its validity was analyzed and confirmed based on content validity and factor analysis.
Results and Discussion: The total average of the marketing strategy variable (3.98) and, among the variable dimensions, the differentiation strategy dimension has the highest average (3.99) and the focus strategy dimension has the lowest average (3.96), which is more than the average of 3. Therefore, it can be concluded that the overall status of the marketing strategy variable is relatively at a favorable level. The total average of the bank level strategy variable is (3.40) and, among the variable dimensions, the supervision strategy dimension has the highest average (3.45) and the guiding strategy dimension has the lowest average (3.40), which is more than the average of 3. Therefore, it can be concluded that the general situation of bank level strategy variables is at a favorable level. The total average of the bank performance variable is (3.25). Among the variable performance indicators, the non-financial performance dimension of the bank has the highest average (3.277) and the financial performance dimension of the bank has the lowest average (3.24), which is more than the average of 3. . Therefore, it can be concluded that the general situation of the bank's performance variable is at a favorable level. The research findings of the hypothesis test indicate that the research hypotheses are confirmed.  In fact, the bank - level strategy has a significant impact on the performance of private banks in Afghanistan. Also, marketing strategy has a significant impact on the performance of private banks in Afghanistan. On the other hand, the content strategy has a mediating role in the relationship between bank level strategy and the performance of private banks in Afghanistan. Similarly, the content strategy has a mediating role in the relationship between marketing strategy and the performance of private banks in Afghanistan. Finally, there is a significant relationship between bank level strategy and marketing strategy.
Conclusion: Private Banks should adopt and implement strategies that have good influence, initiative and monitor their operations in the form of market resources. Then its opportunities, challenges are responsible for achieving the strategic goals of those banks. On the other hand, the performance effectiveness of these banks is optimized and increased within the framework of strategies (bank level strategy and marketing strategy). Bank level strategy has a general approach that strives to create and maximize value for the bank and customers on long-term investment. The dimensions of this strategy include (guidance strategy, portfolio and supervision), which are planned and implemented according to the model and mission of private banks, which maintain the overall performance and success of the bank. Based on this, it controls and improves financial and non-financial performance in the form of strategic goals and market opportunities. The marketing strategy coordinates the capabilities and capabilities of private banks with opportunities, changing environmental variables and its performance are focused on gaining and creating a sustainable competitive advantage. The main goal of this strategy is to compete in new markets and take advantage of market growth opportunities to maintain and achieve optimal performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bank level Strategy
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Content Strategy
  • Strategic Stance
  • Strategic Action and Bank´s Performance
Abbell, D.F., & Hammond, J.S. (1979). Strategic Market Planning: Problems and Analytical Approaches. Englewood Cliffs, N. J: Prentice-Hall.  
Alexander, M., Campbell, A., & Glood, M. (1995).  A New Model for Reforming the Planning Review Process. Planning Review.
Ambrosini, C., & Bowman, C. (1997b). Perceptions of Strategic Priorities, Consensus and Firm Performance. Journal of Management Studies 34: 241-258.
Amoako-Gyampah, K., & Acquaah, M. (2008). Manufacturing strategy, competitive strategy and firm performance: An empirical study in a developing economy environment. International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 111, No. -2, pp. 575-592.
Andrews, R., Boyen, G.A., & Walker, R.M. (2006). Strategy content and organizational performance: an empirical analysis. Public Management Review, January/February.
Ansoff, H. I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard business review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, L C. (2011). Debt/Equity Ratio and Expected Common Stock Returns: Empirical Evidence. Journal of Finance, pp 507-528.
Arabi, Seyyed Mohammad and Hashem Aghazadeh, Hoshang (2017). Strategic planning manuscript. Tehran: Publications of Cultural Research Office (in Presion).
Awaluddin, Muhammad. (2014). The Effect of Corporate Strategy to Company Performance. A Survey in Businesses Unit of PT. Tbk, International Conference on Economics, Education and Humanities (ICEEH'14), Bali (Indonesia), Dec. 10-11.
Azizi, Mohammad Javad and Melai, Zainab (2018). Investigating the extent of implementation of innovation strategies in financial services in the banking system (case study: Tehran city banks). 13th International Conference on Strategic Management, Tehran: Strategic Management Association of Iran, https://www.civilica.com/Paper-ICSM13-ICSM13_053.html (in Presion).
B RAIN QUEEN, JAMES, HENRY. James, Robert M. (2011). Strategic management (strategy process). Translated by Mohammad Saebi. Tehran: Publications of the Higher Institute of Management Education and Research (in Presion).
Beginning, legend; Zalqi, Hassan and Turkashund, Mehrsa (2017). The importance of management innovation in company profitability. The 7th National Conference of Modern Management Sciences(in Presion).
Bell, Martin. (1994). Marketing: Concept and Strategy. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 4th Edition.  
Berry, F. S. (1994). Innovation in Public Management: The Adoption of Strategic Planning. Public Administration Review 54: 322-330.
Boyne, G. A., & Walker, R.M. (2004). Strategy content and public service organizations. Journal of Public Organization Research and Theory No.14, pp. 231-252.
Boyne, George A., & Jay, Dahya. (2002). Executive succession and the performance of public organizations. Public Administration 80: 179-200.
Campbell, David, Stonehouse, George, & Houston, Bill. (2002). Business Strategy. 2th Edition, Elsevier. 
Carroll, S. J., & Craig E. S. (2011). Performance Appraisal and Review Systems. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Cathoth, Prakash K. (2002). Co-Alignment between Environment Risks. Corporate Strategy, Capital Structure, and Firm Performance: an Empirical Investigation of Restaurant Firms. Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
Danaei Fard, Hassan; Alwani, Seyyed Mehdi and Azar, Adel (2016). Quantitative research methodology in management: a comprehensive approach. Tehran: Safar Publications (in Presion).
David, Fred R. (1999). Strategic Managment. Translated by Ali Parsayan and Seyyed Mohammad Arabi, (2014), Tehran: Publications of the Department of Culture Research (in Presion).
Day, G.S., & Wensley, R. (1988). Assessing advantage: a framework for diagnosing competitive superiority. Journal of Marketing. 52(2), pp: 1-20.
Duhaime, M. I., Larry, S., & Julie, Ch. (2002). Strategic Thinking: Today's Business Imperative. Routledge, edition 1.  
Faqhi Farhamand, Nasser (2012). Strategic management of the organization. Tabriz: Forozesh Publications (in Presion).
Fox-Wolfgramm, S., K. Boal., & J. Hunt. (1998). Organizational Adaptation to Institutional Change: A comparative Study of First-Order Change in Prospector and Defender Banks. Administrative Science Quarterly 43: 87-126.
Fu, X., Lin, Y., & Molyneux, P. (2014). Bank efficiency and shareholder value in Asia pacific. Int.Fin.markets, Inst and money 33: 200-222.
Galbraith, J., & Kazanjian, R. (1986). Strategy implementation. St. Paul. MN: West Publishing, Gibby lan H. (2001), Capital structure: how much Debt? New York University, www.stenn.nyu.edu/~igiddy/copyfin/ibmcf.pdf.
Garrigos-Simon FJ., Marques D., & Narangajavana Y. (2005). Competitive strategies and performance in Spanish hospitality firms. Int. J. Cont. Hosp. Manage., Vol. 17, No.1, pp22-38.
Gould, Michael; Andrew Campbell and Marcus Alexander (2012). Parent company strategy, value creation in multi-business companies. Translated by Esmail Sadeghi and Nahid Safaei, Tehran: Ariana Qalam Publications. second edition.
Griffin, Ricky W. (2012). Management. Cengage Learning, edition 11.
Halgin, H. (1997). The strategy Concept and Process: A Pragmatic Approach. 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Homburg, C., Krohmer, H., & Workman, J. P. (1999). Strategic consensus and performance: The role of strategy type and market-related dynamism. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 339-357.
Hunger, J. D., & Wheelen, T. L. (2001). Essentials of strategic management (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ireland, R. D., & Webb, J. W. (2009). Crossing the great divide of strategic entrepreneurship: Transitioning between exploration and exploitation. Business Horizons, Volume 52, Issue 5.
Jennings, G. (2001). Torism research. New York: John wiley & sons.
Johnson G., Whittington, R., & Scholes, K. (2011). Exploring strategy: text & cases. 9th edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kemp, Jeroen L.C. (2006). Configurations of Corporate Strategy System in Knowledge-Intensive Enterprises. Edinhoven University.
Ketchen, D. J. Jr., J. B. Thomas., & R. R. Jr. McDaniel. (1996). Process, Content and Context: Synergistic Effects on Organizational Performance. Journal of Management 22: 231-257.
Koksal. Mehmte., & Ozgul, Engin. (2007). Marketing Strategy and Performance in an economic crisis. Emerald, Vol.25,No. 4.  
Kormendi, R., & Lips, R. (1987). Earninigs innovations, earnings persistence and stock returns. Journal of Business 60, 323-345.
Kutler, Philip and Keller, Kevin Lane (2017). Marketing management volume one. Translated by Mehdi Amir Jafari, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Institute Publications. (in Presion)
Labaf, Hassan; Fathi, Saeed and Zamani Mirzamani Castle, Sime Bahar (2011). Analyzing the content of business strategies and its effects on the performance of organizations. Strategic Management Studies No. 9, pp. 77-96(in Presion).
Lynch, R., & Cross, K. (1991). Measure up yardsticks for Continuous Improvement.
Malik Arai Nizamuddin (2010). "Strategic management and the necessity of its application during the embargo period." Auditor magazine (in Presion).
Mattsson, J., Ramaseshan, R., & Carson, D. (2006). Let marketers reclaim corporate strategy. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 14(2), 165-173.
Meier. K.J., O'Toole Jr. L.J., Boyne. G.A., & Walker R.M. (2006). Strategic Management and Performance of Public Organizations: Testing Venerable Ideas: against Recent Theories. Journal of Public Administration Research No.17, pp.357-377.
Menon, A., Bharadwaj, S. G., Adidam, P. T., & Edison, S. W. (1999). Antecedents and consequences of marketing strategy making: a model and a test. The Journal of Marketing, 18-40.  
Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational Strategy. Structure and Process NewYork, McGraw-Hill.
Mokwa. M. P., Conant, J. S., & P. R. Varadarajan. (1990). Strategic Types, Distinctive Marketing Competencies and Organizational Performance: A Multiple Measures-Based Study. Strategic Management Journal 11: 365-383.
Mustafazadeh, Hossein (2017). The relationship between vision and strategy with service performance in Bank Mellat. Master's thesis, Islamic Azad University, Shahriar branch, in the field of executive management (A.M.) strategic orientation (in Presion).
Nag, R., D. C. Hambrick., & M. J. Chen. (2007). what is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field. Strategic Management Journal 28 (9): 935–955.
Neill, S., & Rose, G. M. (2006). The effect of strategic complexity on marketing strategy and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 59(1), 1-10.
Olson, E. M., Slater, S. F., & Hult, G. T. M. (2005). The performance implications of fit among business strategy. Marketing organization structure, and strategic behavior, Journal of Marketing, 69, July, 49-65.
Osborne, S. P. (1998). Voluntary Organizations and Innovation in Public Services. NewYork: Routledge.
Parnell, J.A. (2008). Strategic Management: Theory and Practice. Third edition. Cincinnati: Cengage.   
Parnell, J.A., & Hershy, L. (2005). The strategy-performance relationship: the blessing and curse of the combination strategy. International Journal of Career Management, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 17-29.
Porter, Michael E. (1980). Competitive Straegy. New York: Free Press.
Porter, Michael E. (2008). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. Free Press; edition 1.  
Rezaei Akbar (2016). The principle of modern banking. Tehran: Shahr Alam Publications, pp. 20-32 (in Presion).
Salaman G., & Asch D. (2003). Strategy and capability sustaining organizational change. United Kingdom, Blackwell Publishing.
Sardari, Ahmad and Nowrozi, Mohsen (2008). Investigating the effect of marketing planning on the performance of companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange and Securities Organization: Shahid University (in Presion).
Saunders, M., Lewis, p., & Thornhill, A. (2000). Desearch methods for business students. London: prentice Hall.
Schroder, Harald. (2015). Foundations of Strategy. John Wiley & Sons.
Secme, Y. N., Bayrakdaroglu, A., & Kahraman, C. (2009). Fuzzy Performance Evaluation in Turkish Banking Sector using Analytic Hierarchy Process and TOPSIS, Expert System with application, 36, 11699-11709.
Slater, S. F., & Olson, E. M. (2000). Strategy type and performance: the influence of sales forces management. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 8, 813-29.
Snow, C. C., & Hrebiniak L. G. (1980). Strategy, Distinctive Competence, and Organizational Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 25: 317-336.
Sudharshan, D. (1995). Marketing Strategy: Relationships, Offerings, Resource Allocation and Timing. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Tilles, S. (1996). How to Evaluate Corporate Strategy. Harvard Business Review, pp: 111-113.
Varadarajan, R. (2010). Strategic marketing and marketing strategy: domain, definition, fundamental issues and foundational premises. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(2), 119-140.
Walker, O. C., & Ruekert, R. W. (1987). Marketing’s role in the implementation of business strategies: A critical Review and conceptual framework. Journal of Marketing, 51, 15-33.
Walker, O.C., Boye, H.W., Mullins, J., & Larreche, J. (2003). Marketing Strategy: A decision focused approach (4th Ed.). New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Walker, R. M., & E. Jeanes. (2001). Innovation in a Regulated Service: The Case of English Housing Associations. Public Management Review 4: 525-550.
Wechsler, B., & R. W. Backoff. (1987). The Dynamics of Strategy in Public Organizations. Journal of the American Planning Association 53: 34-43.
Westphal, J. D., R. Gulait., & S. M. Shortell. (1997). Customization or Conformity? AnInstitutional and Network Perspective on the Content and Consequences of TQMA doption. Administrative Science Quarterly 42: 366-394.
Willen, Thomas L. and Hunger, J. David (2015). Strategic management and business policy. Translated by Seyed Mohammad Arabi, Hashem Aghazadeh, Tehran: Publications of Cultural Research Office (in Presion).
Woodside, A. G., D. P. Sullvan., & R. J. Trappey. (1999). Assessing Relationships Among strategic Types, Distinctive Marketing Competencies, and Organizational Performance. Journal of Business Research 45: 135-146.
Zou, Sh., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2002). The GMS: A Broad Conceptualization of Global Marketing Strategy and its Effect of Firm Performance. Journal of Marketing, 66 (October), 40-5.