شکل‌گیری وفاداری به مقصد باتجربه مقصد، تصویر مقصد و رضایت از مقصد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت، دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازاریابی، دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت بازاریابی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.29252/bar.9.17.175

چکیده

هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، شکل‌گیری وفاداری به مقصد باتجربه مقصد، تصویر مقصد و رضایت از مقصد در شهر شیراز است. جهت گردآوری داده­های موردنیاز از پرسشنامه استفاده شده است و داده­های گردآوری شده از نمونه مورد بررسی (گردشگران داخلی و خارجی هتل‌های پنج ستاره کلاس A شهر شیراز) نیز با استفاده از آمار توصیفی (نرم افزار SPSS) مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری مبتنی با رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزئی (نرم افزار Smart PLS) مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. تعداد نمونه این پژوهش با توجه به محدودیت‌های تحقیق 82 نفر بوده است. این تحقیق دارای 5 فرضیه می­باشد که هر 5 فرضیه آن مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد تصویر از مقصد تأثیر مثبت بر رضایت از مقصد و وفاداری به مقصد دارد، همچنین تجربه از مقصد تأثیر مثبت بر رضایت از مقصد و وفاداری به مقصد دارد و درنهایت رضایت از مقصد موجب افزایش رضایت مشتری می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Formation of Destination Loyalty by Destination Experience, Destination Image and Destination Satisfaction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Abbasi 1
  • Niayesh Rostampour Shahidi 2
  • Esmail Bazyar Hamzekhani 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 MSc. student in Marketing Management, Faculty of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 MSc. student in marketing management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of the present study is to form destination loyalty by destination experience, destination image and destination satisfaction. In order to collect the data, a questionnaire was used, and the collected data on the investigated sample (local and foreign tourists in A-class five-star hotels of Shiraz) were analyzed using the descriptive SPSS software. Also, a structural equation was modeled with the approach of minimum detailed squares (i.e. Smart PLS software). The number of participants in this study, concerning the research limitations, was 82. This study consisted of five hypotheses, all of which were confirmed. The results showed that destination image has positive effects on destination satisfaction and destination loyalty. Also, destination experience has the positive effect on destination satisfaction and destination loyalty. Finally, destination satisfaction increases customer satisfaction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • destination satisfaction
  • Destination image
  • tourist satisfaction
  • destination loyalty
1-    پور اصغر، فرزام و رضا ویسی (1390)، «آمایش سرزمین مبنایی برای توسعه صنعت گردشگری پایدار، فصلنامه علوم اقتصادی، شماره 14، صص 186-191.
2-       Addis, M., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption: an explosion of subjectivity. Journal of consumer behaviour, 1(1), 50-66.
3-       Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms. Marketing science, 12(2), 125-143.
4-       Backman, S. J., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). The usefulness of selected variables for predicting activity loyalty. Leisure Sciences, 13(3), 205-220.
5-       Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). US international pleasure travelers’ images of four Mediterranean destinations: A comparison of visitors and nonvisitors. Journal of travel research, 38(2), 144-152.
6-       Bastida, U., & Huan, T. C. (2014). Performance evaluation of tourism websites' information quality of four global destination brands: Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Taipei. Journal of Business Research, 67(2), 167-170.
7-       Bigne, J. E., Sanchez, M. I., & Sanchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: inter-relationship. Tourism management, 22(6), 607-616.
8-       Bowen, J. T., & Shoemaker, S. (1998). Loyalty: A strategic commitment. Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 39(1), 12-25.
9-       Chang, P. L., & Chieng, M. H. (2006). Building consumer–brand relationship: A cross‐cultural experiential view. Psychology & Marketing, 23(11), 927-959.
10-   Chen, C. C., Lai, Y. H. R., Petrick, J. F., & Lin, Y. H. (2016). Tourism between divided nations: An examination of stereotyping on destination image. Tourism Management, 55, 25-36.
11-   Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism management, 28(4), 1115-1122.
12-   Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism management, 29(4), 624-636.
13-   Crompton, J. L. (1979). An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of travel research, 17(4), 18-23.
14-   Cronin, J. J., Brady, M. K., & Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of retailing, 76(2), 193-218.
15-   Danaher, P. J., & Arweiler, N. (1996). Customer Satisfaction in the Tourist Industry A Case Study of Visitors to New Zealand. Journal of Travel Research, 35(1), 89-93.
16-   Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 22(2), 99-113.
17-   Ekinci, Y., Sirakaya-Turk, E., & Preciado, S. (2013). Symbolic consumption of tourism destination brands. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 711-718.
18-   Fakeye, P. C., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time, and repeat visitors to the lower Rio Grande valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 10–15.
19-   Frías, D. M., Rodriguez, M. A., & Castañeda, J. A. (2008). Internet vs. travel agencies on pre-visit destination image formation: An information processing view. Tourism Management, 29(1), 163-179.
20-   Gartner, W. C. (1989). Tourism image: Attribute measurement of state tourism products using multidimensional scaling techniques. Journal of Travel Research, 28(2), 16-20.
21-   Gartner, W. C. (1993). Image formation process. Journal of travel & tourism marketing, 2(2-3), 191-216.
22-   Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G. (2007). How to sustain the customer experience: An overview of experience components that co-create value with the consumer. European Management Journal, 25(5), 395–410.
23-   Gursoy, D., & McCleary, K. W. (2004). An integrative model of tourists’information search behavior. Annals of tourism research, 31(2), 353-373.
24-   Gyte, D. M., & Phelps, A. (1989). Patterns of destination repeat business: British tourists in Mallorca, Spain. Journal of Travel Research, 28(1), 24-28
25-   Gyte, D.M., & Phelps, A. (1989). Patterns of destination repeat business: British tourists in Mallorca, Spain. Journal of Travel Research, 28(1), 24–28.
26-   Han, H., & Ryu, K. (2009). The roles of the physical environment, price perception, and customer satisfaction in determining customer loyalty in the restaurant industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(4), 487-510.
27-   Han, X., Kwortnik, R., & Wang, C. (2008). Service loyalty: An integrative model and examination across service contexts. Journal of Service Research.
28-   Hosany, S., & Prayag, G. (2013). Patterns of tourists' emotional responses, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 730–737.
29-   Hsu, S., Dehuang, N., & Woodside, A. G. (2009). Storytelling research of consumers' selfreports of urban tourism experiences in China. Journal of Travel Research, 66(6), 752–758.
30-   Hultman, M., Skarmeas, D., Oghazi, P., & Beheshti, H. M. (2015). Achieving tourist loyalty through destination personality, satisfaction, and identification. Journal of Business Research, 68(11), 2227–2231.
31-   Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: The role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(6), 346–351.
32-   Kim, W. G., Li, J. J., & Brymer, R. A. (2016). The impact of social media reviews on restaurant performance: The moderating role of excellence certificate. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 55, 41-51.
33-   Költringer, C., & Dickinger, A. (2015). Analyzing destination branding and image from online sources: A web content mining approach. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1836-1843.
34-   Kozak, M. (2001). Repeaters' behavior at two distinct destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(3), 785–808.
35-   Kozak, M., & Rimmington, M. (2000). Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an offseason holiday destination. Journal of Travel Research, 38(1), 260–269.
36-   Li, X. R., Pan, B., Zhang, L. G., & Smith, W. W. (2009). The effect of online information search on image development: Insights from a mixed-methods study. Journal of Travel Research.
37-   McCartney, G., Butler, R., & Bennett, M. (2008). A strategic use of the communication mix in the destination image-formation process. Journal of Travel Research, 47(2), 183-196.
38-   McIntosh, A., & Siggs, A. (2005). An exploration of the experiential nature of boutique accommodation. Journal of Travel Research, 44(1), 74–81.
39-   Meleddu, M., Paci, R., & Pulina, M. (2015). Repeated behaviour and destination loyalty. Tourism Management, 50, 159-171.
40-   Merrilees, B., Miller, D., & Herington, C. (2009). Antecedents of residents' city brand attitudes. Journal of Business Research, 62(3), 362–367.
41-   Michels, N., & Bowen, D. (2005). The relevance of retail loyalty, strategy and practice for leisure and tourism. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(1), 5–19.
42-   Millan, A., & Esteban, A. (2004). Development of a multiple-itemscale for measuring customer satisfaction in travel agencies services. Tourism Management, 25(5), 533–546.
43-   Milman, A., & Pizam, A. (1995). The role of awareness and familiarity with a destination: The central Florida case. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3), 21–27.
44-   Min, K. S., Martin, D., & Jung, J. M. (2013). Designing advertising campaigns for destinations with mixed images: Using visitor campaign goal messages to motivate visitors. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 759-764.
45-   Mohamad, M., Ali, N. A. M., Ab Ghani, N. I., Halim, M. S. A., & Loganathan, N. (2015). Effects of the Malaysian Travel Destination Brand Image on Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty.
46-   Nikolova, M. S., & Hassan, S. S. (2013). Nation branding effects on retrospective global evaluation of past travel experiences. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 752–758.
47-   Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill.
48-   Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 78–84.
49-   Perdue, R. (2002). Perishability, yield management, and cross-product elasticity: A case study of deep discount season passes in the Colorado ski industry. Journal of Travel Research, 41(1), 15–22.
50-   Petrick, J. D. M., & Norman, W. (2001). An examination of the determinants of entertainment vacationers' intentions to visit. Journal of Travel Research, 40(1), 41–48.
51-   Pizam, A., & Milman, A. (1993). Predicting satisfaction among first time visitors to a destination by using the expectancy disconfirmation theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 12(2), 197–209.
52-   Prayag, G. (2008). Image, satisfaction and loyalty: The case of Cape Town. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 205–224.
53-   Prayag, G. (2009). Tourists' evaluations of destination image, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions: The case of Mauritius. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(8), 836–853.
54-   Pritchard, M., & Howard, D. R. (1997). The loyal traveler: Examining a typology of service patronage. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 2–10.
55-   Quan, S., & Wang, N. (2004). Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism. Tourism Management, 25(3), 297–305.
56-   Russell-Bennett, R., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., & Coote, L. V. (2007). Involvement, satisfaction, and brand loyalty in a small business services setting. Journal of Business Research, 60(12), 1253-1260.
57-   Ryu, K., Lee, H. R., & Gon Kim, W. (2012). The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200-223.
58-   San Martín, H., & Del Bosque, I. A. R. (2008). Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29(2), 263-277.
59-   Severt, D., Wang, Y., Chen, P., & Breiter, D. (2007). Examining the motivation, perceived performance, and behavioral intentions of convention attendees: Evidence from a regional conference. Tourism Management, 28(2), 399–408.
60-   Sirakaya-Turk, E., Ekinci, Y., & Martine, D. (2015). The efficacy of shopping value in predicting destination loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1878–1885.
61-   Tasci, A. D., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of travel research, 45(4), 413-425.
62-   Tian-Cole, S., Crompton, J. L., & Willson, V. L. (2002). An empirical investigation of the relationships between service quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions among visitors to a wildlife refuge. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(1), 1–24.
63-   Tribe, J., & Snaith, T. (1998). FromSERVQUAL to HOLSAT: Holiday satisfaction in varadero, Cuba. Tourism Management, 19(1), 25–34.
64-   Whipple, T. W., & Thach, S. V. (1988). Group tour management: Does good service produce satisfied customers? Journal of Travel Research, 28(2), 16–21.
65-   Woodside, A. G., & Lysonski, S. (1989). A general model of traveler destination choice. Journal of Travel Research, 27(4), 8–14.
66-   Wu, C. W. (2016). Destination loyalty modeling of the global tourism. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 2213-2219.
67-   Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism management, 26(1), 45-56.
68-   Yu, L., & Goulden, M. (2006). A comparative analysis of international tourists' satisfaction in Mongolia. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1331–1432.
69-   Yuksel, A., & Yuksel, F. (2007). Shopping risk perceptions: Effects on tourists' emotions, satisfaction and expressed loyalty intentions. Tourism Management, 28(3), 703–713.
70-   Zeugner-Roth, K. P., & Žabkar, V. (2015). Bridging the gap between country and destination image: Assessing common facets and their predictive validity. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1844-1853.
71-   Zeugner-Roth, K. P., & Žabkar, V. (2015). Bridging the gap between country and destination image: Assessing common facets and their predictive validity. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1844–1853.
72-   Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., & Lu, L. (2014). Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 40, 213-223.
73-   Puh, B. (2014). Destination Image and Tourism Satisfaction: The Case of a Mediterranean Destination. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(13), 538.
74-   Toudert, D., & Bringas-Rábago, N. L. (2016). Impact of the destination image on cruise repeater’s experience and intention at the visited port of call. Ocean & Coastal Management, 130, 239-249.