تاثیر مدیریت ناب بر عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه بازاریابی صنعتی، دانشگاه متروپولیتن منچستر، انگلستان

2 کارشناس ارشد گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، مؤسسه عالی آموزش و پژوهش مدیریت و برنامه‏ریزی، تهران (وابسته به ریاست جمهوری)

10.29252/bar.2022.12761.3249

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت فرایند توسعه محصول جدید در موفقیت شرکت‏ها، بکارگیری رویکردهای مدیریت ناب با هدف کاهش ضایعات و بهبود مستمر می‌تواند به ‏عنوان راهبرد مناسبی در کاهش پیچیدگی‏های موجود در این فرایند، که به بهبود عملکرد نیز منجر می‏شوند، مورد توجه قرار گیرند. به همین دلیل، این پژوهش به بررسی اثر رویکردهای مدیریت ناب بر عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید از راه بهبود مستمر می‌پردازد که پنج بُعد مدیریت کیفیت جامع، تیم‌های چندوظیفه‌ای، مشارکت مشتریان، مشارکت تامین‏کنندگان، و مشارکت کارکنان، به عنوان وجوه مختلف مدیریت ناب در نظر گرفته می‏شود. علاوه ‏بر بررسی اثر کلی مدیریت ناب بر عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید، اثر هر یک از این پنج رویکرد نیز به واسطۀ بهبود مستمر بر عملکرد محصولات جدید مورد مطالعه قرار می‏گیرند. برای انجام پژوهش به صورت کمّی و توسعه‏ای، داده‏های مربوط به 301 شرکت تولیدی ایرانی از 21 صنعت جمع‏آوری و با مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری تحلیل شدند. نتایج فرضیه‌های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که مدیریت ناب از طریق بهبود مستمر، اثر مثبت و معناداری بر عملکرد توسعه محصول جدید می‌گذارد. این رابطه برای هر یک از ابعاد مدیریت کیفیت جامع، تیم‏های چندوظیفه‏ای و مشارکت مشتریان مثبت و معنادار است، اما در مورد مشارکت تامین‏کنندگان و مشارکت کارکنان رابطه معناداری به‏دست نیامد. این پژوهش دارای راهکارها و پیشنهادهای اجرایی و پژوهشی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The impact of lean management on new product development performance

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Najafi-Tavani 1
  • Seyed Hossein Chabok 2
  • Seyedeh Faeze Hashemi 2
1 Senior Lecturer in B2B Marketing, Manchester Metropolitan University
2 Institute for Management and Planning Studies
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In today’s competitive environment, the development of new products becomes increasingly vital for firms to gain a competitive advantage. Due to a number of factors such as technological advances, increasing risk in global trades and, most importantly, rapidly changing customer needs and preferences, new product development (NPD) is considered as a complex process in the literature. Firms continually endeavor to find effective ways to cope with the complexity of the NPD process and improve its performance. Lean management practices with the aim of reducing wastes and improving product quality is suggested to be used to enhance the development performance of new products. Following the literature, this research examines the relationships between lean management practices and new products development performance. The literature shows that lean management factors alone are not able to have direct positive effects on the innovative performance of firms. To fill the gap, this study considers continuous improvement as the mediating role of this relationship so that companies can take the advantage of lean management. This study aims to show that lean management is composed of two dimensions inside and outside the organization by examining examples of manufacturing companies in Iran. It also addresses the influence of the components of lean management on NPD performance; continuous improvement can be an important interface in this regard. A review of previous research suggests that, despite the great bulk of research on new product development and lean management separately, the impact of lean management as a set of different dimensions on NPD performance has not been investigated. In other words, many studies in the field consider only one pure dimension (Samson & Terziovski, 1999; Tsai & Hsu, 2014; Felekoglu & Moultrie, 2014), while the methods and different techniques of lean management complement one another and their simultaneous implementation can have a positive effect on NPD. Instead of targeting a certain level of purity, the philosophy of lean manufacturing focuses on the continuous improvement of processes (Longoni et al., 2013). According to this concept, continuous improvement is one of the key outcomes of lean components. For this reason, this study seeks to measure the impact of lean management on NPD performance with the mediating role of continuous improvement.
Methodology: The data were collected in a survey of 301 Iranian manufacturing firms to test the hypotheses by structural equation modeling. Personal hardcopy questionnaires were distributed among those companies that had more than three years of product development activities as well as more than 20 employees. As a result, 800 manufacturing companies were recognized to participate in the survey. It is worth noting that the questionnaires were completed by executives (such as CEOs, production managers, marketing managers, sales managers, and sales research and development authorities) or their deputies. Finally, 301 acceptable and valid questionnaires were collected. There was a response rate of 37.6%. Prior to testing the hypotheses using structural equation modeling through Lisrel the 8.8 software, the questionnaire items taken from valid English research works were translated once from English to Persian and again from Persian to English, and their original copy was compared  to ensure the correct translation and transfer of the content (Tsai & Hsu, 2014; Yang et al., 2011). In order to confirm the validity of the content and the form, the questionnaires were distributed among seven experienced faculty members in the fields of innovation and business to express their expert opinions on them.
Results and Discussion: The findings show that lean management (including total quality management, cross-functional teams, customer participation) has a positive impact on the new product development performance, financially and non-financially, through continuous improvement. Moreover, regarding the dimensions of lean management, while cross-functional team and customer involvement are found to have positive impacts on NPD performance, the relationships between supplier and employee involvement and NPD performance did not attain significant levels.
Conclusion: According to the research results, beyond external factors, there are factors such as total quality management and the formation of cross functional teams that are able to integrate scattered knowledge in an organization and extend it to improve the organization’s innovation. In fact, cross-functional teams and total quality management enable people from diverse areas within the organization or even between organizations to exchange information, develop new ideas, and solve complex problems. By contrast, in terms of the external factors, managers in a business environment like Iran should focus on customer participation, not suppliers. The results show that companies cannot expect positive results in Iran by strengthening inter-organizational partnership (such as partnership with suppliers). The weakness of supply chains and the lack of sufficient information are some of the factors that hinder the acquisition of knowledge in this way. According to the results, with the participation of customers, companies come closer to the demands of customers, and this can be very critical to the sales and satisfaction of new products.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • New Product Performance
  • Lean Management
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Cross-functional Teams
  • Involvement
Aloini, D., Martini, A., & Pellegrini, L. (2011). Effectiveness of different development paths in continuous improvement: empirical results from a (new) methodological approach. International Journal of Technology Management, 55(1-2), 6-27.
Anderson, J. C., Rungtusanatham, M., Schroeder, R. G., & Devaraj, S. (1995). A path analytic model of a theory of quality management underlying the Deming management method: preliminary empirical findings. Decision sciences, 26(5), 637-658.
Asna-ashari Amiri, A., Ehsanfar, M. H., Javanmard Ghasab, A., Chabok, S. H., & Abbaszadeh Amirdehi, Z. (2021). The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Performance: Mediating Role of Strategic Orientation and Moderating Role of Environmental Dynamism in Knowledge-oriented Firms. Journal of Sustainable Human Resource Management, 3(4), 113-151.
Barczak, G., Griffin, A., & Kahn, K. B. (2009). Perspective: trends and drivers of success in NPD practices: results of the 2003 PDMA best practices study. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 26(1), 3-23.
Barney, J. B. (2001). Resource-based theories of competitive advantage: A ten-year retrospective on the resource-based view. Journal of management, 27(6), 643-650.
Bendoly, E., Bharadwaj, A., & Bharadwaj, S. (2012). Complementary drivers of new product development performance: Cross‐functional coordination, information system capability, and intelligence quality. Production and Operations Management, 21(4), 653-667.
Bessant, J., Caffyn, S., & Gallagher, M. (2001). An evolutionary model of continuous improvement behaviour. Technovation, 21(2), 67-77.
Bourke, J., & Roper, S. (2017). Innovation, quality management and learning: Short-term and longer-term effects. Research Policy, 46(8), 1505-1518.
Chen, C.-J. (2007). Information technology, organizational structure, and new product development---the mediating effect of cross-functional team interaction. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 54(4), 687-698.
Chen, J. C., Cheng, C.-H., & Huang, P. B. (2013). Supply chain management with lean production and RFID application: A case study. Expert Systems with applications, 40(9), 3389-3397.
Cheng, C., & Yang, M. (2019). Creative process engagement and new product performance: The role of new product development speed and leadership encouragement of creativity. Journal of business research, 99(1), 215-225.
Cordero, R., Farris, G. F., & DiTomaso, N. (1998). Technical professionals in cross‐functional teams: their quality of work life. Journal of Product Innovation Management: An International Publication of the Product Development & Management Association, 15(6), 550-563.
Cotton, J. L., Vollrath, D. A., Froggatt, K. L., Lengnick-Hall, M. L., & Jennings, K. R. (1988). Employee participation: Diverse forms and different outcomes. Academy of Management review, 13(1), 8-22.
Dholakia, U. M., Bagozzi, R. P., & Pearo, L. K. (2004). A social influence model of consumer participation in network-and small-group-based virtual communities. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(3), 241-263.
Douglas, T. J., & Judge Jr, W. Q. (2001). Total quality management implementation and competitive advantage: the role of structural control and exploration. Academy of Management journal, 44(1), 158-169.
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W. D., & Rübsaamen, C. (2010). Sales, marketing, and research-and-development cooperation across new product development stages: implications for success. Journal of Marketing, 74(5), 80-92.
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W. D., Krafft, M., & Krieger, K. (2011). Customer relationship management and company performance—the mediating role of new product performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(2), 290-306.
Ettlie, J. E., & Pavlou, P. A. (2006). Technology‐based new product development partnerships. Decision sciences, 37(2), 117-147.
Fang, E., Palmatier, R. W., & Evans, K. R. (2008). Influence of customer participation on creating and sharing of new product value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(3), 322-336.
Felekoglu, B., & Moultrie, J. (2014). Top management involvement in new product development: A review and synthesis. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(1), 159-175.
Fritsch, M., & Lukas, R. (2001). Who cooperates on R&D? Research Policy, 30(2), 297-312.
Füller, J., & Matzler, K. (2007). Virtual product experience and customer participation—A chance for customer-centred, really new products. Technovation, 27(6-7), 378-387.
Fullerton, R. R., & Wempe, W. F. (2009). Lean manufacturing, non-financial performance measures, and financial performance. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 29(3), 214-240.
Ganesan, S., Malter, A. J., & Rindfleisch, A. (2005). Does distance still matter? Geographic proximity and new product development. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 44-60.
Genç, E., & Di Benedetto, C. A. (2015). Cross-functional integration in the sustainable new product development process: The role of the environmental specialist. Industrial marketing management, 50(1), 150-161.
Gonzalez, G. R., & Claro, D. P. (2019). How intrafirm intermediary salespeople connect sales to marketing and product development. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(5), 795-814.
Gruner, K. E., & Homburg, C. (2000). Does customer interaction enhance new product success? Journal of business research, 49(1), 1-14.
Hackman, J. R., & Wageman, R. (1995). Total quality management: Empirical, conceptual, and practical issues. Administrative science quarterly, 40(2), 309-342.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th): Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall‏.
Handfield, R. B., & Bechtel, C. (2002). The role of trust and relationship structure in improving supply chain responsiveness. Industrial Marketing Management, 31(4), 367-382.
Homburg, C., Alavi, S., Rajab, T., & Wieseke, J. (2017). The contingent roles of R&D–sales versus R&D–marketing cooperation in new-product development of business-to-business firms. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34(1), 212-230.
Jones, D. T., Hines, P., & Rich, N. (1997). Lean logistics. International Journal of physical distribution & logistics management, 27(3/4), 153-173.
Katila, R., & Ahuja, G. (2002). Something old, something new: A longitudinal study of search behavior and new product introduction. Academy of management journal, 45(6), 1183-1194.
Kaynak, H. (2003). The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance. Journal of operations management, 21(4), 405-435.
Lagrosen, S. (2005). Customer involvement in new product development: A relationship marketing perspective. European Journal of Innovation Management, 8(4), 424-436.
Lee, C., & Chen, W.-J. (2007). Cross-functionality and charged behavior of the new product development teams in Taiwan's information technology industries. Technovation, 27(10), 605-615.
Longoni, A., Pagell, M., Johnston, D., & Veltri, A. (2013). When does lean hurt?–an exploration of lean practices and worker health and safety outcomes. International Journal of Production Research, 51(11), 3300-3320.
Luo, X., Slotegraaf, R. J., & Pan, X. (2006). Cross-functional “coopetition”: The simultaneous role of cooperation and competition within firms. Journal of Marketing, 70(2), 67-80.
Lynn, G. S., Abel, K. D., Valentine, W. S., & Wright, R. C. (1999). Key factors in increasing speed to market and improving new product success rates. Industrial marketing management, 28(4), 319-326.
Maltz, E., & Kohli, A. K. (2000). Reducing marketing’s conflict with other functions: the differential effects of integrating mechanisms. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(4), 479.
McGinnis, M. A., & Vallopra, R. M. (1999). Purchasing and supplier involvement: issues and insights regarding new product success. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 35(2), 4-15.
Minbaeva, D., Pedersen, T., Björkman, I., Fey, C. F., & Park, H. J. (2003). MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity, and HRM. Journal of international business studies, 34(6), 586-599.
Morgan, T., Obal, M., & Anokhin, S. (2018). Customer participation and new product performance: Towards the understanding of the mechanisms and key contingencies. Research Policy, 47(2), 498-510.
Moyano-Fuentes, J., & Sacristán-Díaz, M. (2012). Learning on lean: a review of thinking and research. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 32(5), 551-582.
Najafi Tavani, S., Sharifi, H., & Ismail, H. S. (2014). A study of contingency relationships between supplier involvement, absorptive capacity and agile product innovation. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 34(1), 65-92.
Najafi Tavani, S., Sharifi, H., Soleimanof, S., & Najmi, M. (2013). An empirical study of firm’s absorptive capacity dimensions, supplier involvement and new product development performance. International Journal of Production Research, 51(11), 3385-3403.
Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management review, 27(3), 392-413.
Narasimhan, R., Swink, M., & Kim, S. W. (2006). Disentangling leanness and agility: an empirical investigation. Journal of operations management, 24(5), 440-457.
Nath, P., & Bharadwaj, N. (2020). Chief marketing officer presence and firm performance: assessing conditions under which the presence of other C-level functional executives matters. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 1-25.
Petersen, K. J., Handfield, R. B., & Ragatz, G. L. (2003). A model of supplier integration into new product development. Journal of product innovation management, 20(4), 284-299.
Petersen, K. J., Handfield, R. B., & Ragatz, G. L. (2005). Supplier integration into new product development: coordinating product, process and supply chain design. Journal of operations management, 23(3-4), 371-388.
Powell, T. C. (1995). Total quality management as competitive advantage: a review and empirical study. Strategic management journal, 16(1), 15-37.
Rasouli Ghahroudi, M., Chabok, S. H., & Conroy, K. M. (2021). The role of subsidiary dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity in a transition economy. Multinational Business Review.
Ritter, T., & Gemünden, H. G. (2004). The impact of a company's business strategy on its technological competence, network competence and innovation success. Journal of business research, 57(5), 548-556.
Samson, D., & Terziovski, M. (1999). The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performance. Journal of operations management, 17(4), 393-409.
Shah, R., & Ward, P. T. (2007). Defining and developing measures of lean production. Journal of operations management, 25(4), 785-805.
Sirvanci, M. B., & Durmaz, M. (1994). Cycle‐time and Cost Improvement by Designed Experiments. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 11(6), 21-26.
Tan, K. C. (2001). A structural equation model of new product design and development. Decision sciences, 32(2), 195-226.
Tsai, K.-H., & Hsu, T. T. (2014). Cross-Functional collaboration, competitive intensity, knowledge integration mechanisms, and new product performance: A mediated moderation model. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2), 293-303.
Van Echtelt, F. E., Wynstra, F., Van Weele, A. J., & Duysters, G. (2008). Managing supplier involvement in new product development: a multiple‐case study. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(2), 180-201.
Wagner, S. M. (2010). Supplier traits for better customer firm innovation performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(7), 1139-1149.
Yang, M. G. M., Hong, P., & Modi, S. B. (2011). Impact of lean manufacturing and environmental management on business performance: An empirical study of manufacturing firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), 251-261.
Yeniyurt, S., Henke, J. W., & Yalcinkaya, G. (2014). A longitudinal analysis of supplier involvement in buyers’ new product development: working relations, inter-dependence, co-innovation, and performance outcomes. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 42(3), 291-308.